Note: Fidya is primarily for those who are suffering from long term illness or unable to fast due to old age (many scholars also include pregnancy in this category), and are not able to make up the fasts after Ramadhan.
According to the Hanafi School, Fidyah can only be paid by someone unable to fast during Ramadhan, cannot make up for the missed fasts at any other time, and is not expected to regain the ability to compensate for the lost fasts. This means that you are only eligible to pay Fidyah if all three aforementioned conditions are fulfilled. If not, the person must make up for the missed fast by fasting rather than paying the Fidyah. Moreover, based on the teachings of the Hanafi School, Fidyah is only valid if the person has no hope of compensating for the missed fast in their lifetime. Therefore, the following people do not qualify to pay Fidyah:
Also, if a person pays Fidyah believing that they won’t be able to make up for the missed fast anytime soon but then regains their health in the future, in such case, they are required to make up for the missed fast as they Fidyah will automatically be considered a charity rather than a compensatory payment.
For the people who intend to fast but face difficulty, Allah SWT says:
“[Fasting is for] a limited number of days. So whoever among you is ill or on a journey [during them] – then an equal number of days [are to be made up]. And upon those who are able [to fast, but with hardship] – a ransom [as substitute] of feeding a poor person [each day]. And whoever volunteers excess – it is better for him. But to fast is best for you if you only knew.” (Qur’an, 2:184)
“Yet if one among you is sick or is on a journey [such a person shall then fast] the same number of other days” (Surah Al-Baqarah: 185)